Mutual Fund Basics
Allocating your portfolio among stock funds and bond funds is just part of the task when it comes to portfolio diversification.
While many investors recognize that there are different types of stock funds offering a range of asset classes, risk levels and geographical diversification, too many investors lump bond investments into one category. That’s a mistake.
There is a wide variety of bond funds, each offering varying degrees of risk and return, making it just as important to achieve the proper investment mix among your bond investments as with your stock investments.
These funds invest primarily in U.S. Treasury bonds, government agency obligations and mortgage-backed debt of Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
Unlike fund shares, Treasury bonds and direct obligations of federal agencies carry a government guarantee. With the exception of Ginnie Mae, mortgage-backed bonds are not government guaranteed.
Government bond funds carry the lowest credit risk among bond fund investments; nonetheless, they are subject to interest rate fluctuations, as are all bonds.
Some states exempt income from Treasury bonds (but not other types of government bonds) from state and local taxes.
Some of these funds invest primarily in investment-grade bonds (rated BBB and above), which are bonds deemed suitable for most investors by credit rating agencies.
Others include a percentage of below-investment-grade bonds (BB and below), which typically feature higher risk and greater potential for income. It’s wise to look closely at that percentage in weighing your investment.
There are also high-yield bond funds, which focus entirely on this riskier segment of the market. Besides a possibly higher income return, price appreciation could occur if companies in the portfolio improve their financial condition.
These funds steer a middle ground, seeking a higher return than short-term debt offers, but with less price volatility than you’d typically see with long-term bonds.
They typically invest in a mixture of government and corporate securities. While these bonds are usually less sensitive to interest rate changes than long-term bonds, they generally offer a lower income stream as well.
These funds invest in bonds issued by state and local authorities. In most cases, interest income is free from regular federal taxes.
Some funds only invest in bonds from a single state, and shareholders who are residents of that state may benefit from interest income that is free from state and local taxes.
Municipal bond yields may appear lower than yields on comparable taxable bonds, but that is often not the case when tax savings are factored into the equation.
These funds invest in the debt securities of non-U.S. companies and governments.
If domestic bonds are included, the fund is referred to as a global or world bond fund. These funds allow investors to take advantage of various economic and political conditions around the world, including declines in the U.S. dollar, to earn a potentially higher return than they could with domestic bonds alone.
However, they are considered more aggressive than a domestic U.S. bond fund due to the risks inherent in international investing, such as fluctuations in currency exchange rates.
Investments are not FDIC-insured, nor are they deposits of or guaranteed by a bank or any other entity, so they may lose value.
Investors should carefully consider investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. This and other important information is contained in the fund prospectuses and summary prospectuses, which can be obtained from a financial professional and should be read carefully before investing.
Investing outside the United States involves risks, such as currency fluctuations, periods of illiquidity and price volatility, as more fully described in the prospectus. These risks may be heightened in connection with investments in developing countries. Small-company stocks entail additional risks, and they can fluctuate in price more than larger company stocks.
The return of principal for bond funds and for funds with significant underlying bond holdings is not guaranteed. Fund shares are subject to the same interest rate, inflation and credit risks associated with the underlying bond holdings. Lower rated bonds are subject to greater fluctuations in value and risk of loss of income and principal than higher rated bonds.
State-specific tax-exempt funds are more susceptible to factors adversely affecting issuers of their states' tax-exempt securities than more widely diversified municipal bond funds. Income from municipal bonds may be subject to state or local income taxes and/or the federal alternative minimum tax (except for The Tax-Exempt Bond Fund of America). Certain other income, as well as capital gain distributions, may be taxable.
Bond ratings, which typically range from AAA/Aaa (highest) to D (lowest), are assigned by credit rating agencies such as Standard & Poor's, Moody's and/or Fitch, as an indication of an issuer's creditworthiness.
Bond prices and a bond fund's share price will generally move in the opposite direction of interest rates.