Beta: Beta relatively measures a fund's sensitivity to market movements over a specified period of time. The beta of the market (represented by the benchmark index) is equal to 1; a beta higher than 1 implies that a fund's return was more volatile than the market. A beta lower than 1 suggests that the fund was less volatile than the market. Generally the higher the R-squared measure, the more reliable the beta measurement will be. Calculated by Morningstar.
Capture Ratio Downside: Capture ratios reflect the annualized product of fund vs. index returns for all months in which the index had a positive return (upside capture) or negative return (downside capture). Calculated by Morningstar.
Capture Ratio Upside: Capture ratios reflect the annualized product of fund vs. index returns for all months in which the index had a positive return (upside capture) or negative return (downside capture). Calculated by Morningstar.
Lipper Consistent Return Rating: The Consistent Return takes into account both short and long-term risk-adjusted performance relative to fund classification. The measure is based on the Effective Return computation. Effective Return is a risk-adjusted return measure that looks back over a variety of holding periods (measured in days, weeks, months, and/or years) and reflects funds’ historical risk-adjusted returns, relative to peers.
Lipper Expense Rating: Lipper Ratings for Expense reflect funds’ expense minimization relative to peers with similar load structures. Lipper Ratings for Expense differentiate funds that have minimized expenses compared to competing funds. These costs are subtracted directly from a fund’s return, so if two funds have equal returns before expenses, the lower cost fund will deliver higher net returns to an investor.
To rate an individual fund, Lipper first looks at the classification the fund is in and then at the load structure (funds within a classification are grouped into one of three load classifications– no-load/front-end load, back-end load/level load, and institutional load). The fund is then ranked against its peers (similar classification, similar load structure) so a fund that has the lowest expense levels within a given classification and time period is designated as a Lipper Leader for Expense.
Lipper Preservation Rating: Lipper Ratings for Preservation reflect funds’ historical loss avoidance relative to other funds within the same asset class. The Preservation model is defined as the sum of negative monthly returns over three-, five-, and ten-year performance periods. Unlike the other Lipper measures, the Preservation measure is calculated from three broad asset classes (equity funds, mixed asset funds, and bond funds) instead of from the investment classification level.
Morningstar rating: In an effort to classify funds by what they own, as well as by their prospectus objectives and styles, Morningstar developed Morningstar Categories. While the prospectus objective identifies a fund's investment goals based on the wording in the fund prospectus, the Morningstar Category identifies funds based on their actual investment styles as measured by their underlying portfolio holdings (portfolio and other statistics over the past three years).
R-Squared: R-squared is a measure of the correlation between a particular fund's return and that of its benchmark index. A measure of 100 indicates that all of the fund's return can be explained by movements in its benchmark. Generally the higher the R-squared measure, the more reliable the beta measurement will be. Calculated by Morningstar.
S&P Target Date Through 2050: The S&P Target Date Through 2050 Index, a subset of the S&P Target Date 2050 Index, is composed of multi-asset classes based on funds with glide paths that aim to be more sensitive to longevity risk at, and beyond, the retirement date. The index is fully investable with varying levels of exposure to the asset classes determined during an annual survey process of target date funds' holdings. The current universe of eligible asset classes includes: U.S. Large-Cap, U.S. Mid-Cap, U.S. Small-Cap, International Equities, Emerging Markets, U.S. REITs, Core Fixed-Income, Cash Equivalents, TIPS and High-Yield Corporate Bonds. Each asset class is represented in the indexes via a different ETF.
Sharpe Ratio: Sharpe ratios use standard deviation and excess return to determine reward per unit of risk. The higher the number, the better the portfolio's historical risk-adjusted performance. Calculated by Morningstar.
Standard Deviation: Annualized standard deviation (based on monthly returns) is a common measure of absolute volatility that tells how returns over time have varied from the mean. A lower number signifies lower volatility. Calculated by Morningstar.
Valuation Price-to-Cash Flow: Price-to-cash-flow (P/C) ratio is the average price to cash flow ratio of the individual stocks within a fund.
Valuation Price-to-Earnings Ratio: Price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio takes the current price of a stock divided by its earnings per share. The ratio reflects the cost of a given stock per dollar of current annual earnings and is the most common measure of a stock's expense. The higher the P/E, the more investors are paying, and therefore the more earnings growth they are expecting.
Valuation: Price-to-book ratio compares a stock's market value to the value of total assets less total liabilities (book value). Adjusted for stock splits. Price-to-cash-flow (P/C) ratio is the average price to cash flow ratio of the individual stocks within a fund. Price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio takes the current price of a stock divided by its earnings per share. The ratio reflects the cost of a given stock per dollar of current annual earnings and is the most common measure of a stock's expense. The higher the P/E, the more investors are paying, and therefore the more earnings growth they are expecting.